Comparison of the odds of isolation, genotypes, and in vivo production of major toxins by Clostridium perfringens obtained from the gastrointestinal tract of dairy cows with hemorrhagic bowel syndrome or left-displaced abomasum.

Dennison AC, Van Metre DC, Morley PS, Callan RJ, Plampin EC, Ellis RP.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency of isolation, genotypes, and in vivo production of major lethal toxins of Clostridium perfringens in adult dairy cows affected with hemorrhagic bowel syndrome (HBS) versus left-displaced abomasum (LDA). DESIGN: Case-control study. ANIMALS: 10 adult dairy cattle with HBS (cases) and 10 adult dairy cattle with LDA matched with cases by herd of origin (controls). PROCEDURE: Samples of gastrointestinal contents were obtained from multiple sites during surgery or necropsy examination. Each sample underwent testing for anaerobic bacteria by use of 3 culture methods. The genotype of isolates of C. perfringens was determined via multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. Major lethal toxins were detected by use of an ELISA. Data were analyzed with multivariable logistic regression and chi2 analysis. RESULTS: C. perfringens type A and type A with the beta2 gene (A + beta2) were the only genotypes isolated. Isolation of C. perfringens type A and type A + beta2 was 6.56 and 3.3 times as likely, respectively, to occur in samples from cattle with HBS than in cattle with LDA. Alpha toxin was detected in 7 of 36 samples from cases and in 0 of 32 samples from controls. Beta2 toxin was detected in 9 of 36 samples from cases and 0 of 36 samples from controls. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: C. perfringens type A and type A + beta2 can be isolated from the gastrointestinal tract with significantly greater odds in cattle with HBS than in herdmates with LDA. Alpha and beta2 toxins were detected in samples from cows with HBS but not from cows with LDA.

Authors

Paul Morley

Citation

Dennison AC, Van Metre DC, Morley PS, Callan RJ, Plampin EC, Ellis RP. Comparison of the odds of isolation, genotypes, and in vivo production of major toxins by Clostridium perfringens obtained from the gastrointestinal tract of dairy cows with hemorrhagic bowel syndrome or left-displaced abomasum. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2005 Jul 1;227(1):132-8.